The different names by which the city has been referred to historically are listed in the 7th-century poem Thiruvilayaadal puraanam written by Paranjothi Munivar. Hindoo Temples and Palace at Madura, a poem by L. E. L.. Madurai is popularly called Thoonga Nagaram meaning the city that never sleeps, on account of the active night life.  The Lady Doak college, established in 1948, is the oldest women's college in Madurai. Madurai Maqbara the grave of Meer Ahmad Ibrahim Periya Hazrat, Meer Amjad Ibrahim Chinna Hazrat and Syed Abdus Salam Ibrahim Saalim Hazrat is located inside the mosque. The Hindu, The New Indian Express and The Times of India are the three principal English language daily newspapers which have Madurai editions.  Direct-to-home cable television services are provided by DD Direct Plus and other private service providers. Originally proposed by the then Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru for establishment in Calcutta, it was established in New Delhi following the refusal of Chief Minister of West Bengal Bidhan Chandra Roy. Avanimoolam festival is celebrated during September when the 64 sacred games of Shiva, thiruvilayadal, are recited.  The airport was declared a customs airport in 2012 allowing limited number of international flights. The National Highways NH 7, NH 45B, NH 208 and NH 49 pass through Madurai.  Being equidistant from mountains and the sea, it experiences similar monsoon pattern with Northeast monsoon and Southwest monsoon, with the former providing more rain during October to December.  Cold winds are experienced during February and March as in the neighbouring Dindigul.  Water supply is provided by the Madurai City Corporation with overhead tanks and power pumps. , According to the religious census of 2011, Madurai had 85.83% Hindus, 8.54% Muslims, 5.18% Christians and 0.47% others. , With the advent of Small Scale Industries (SSI) after 1991, the industrialisation of Madurai increased employment in the sector across the district from 63,271 in 1992–93 to 166,121 persons in 2001–02.  Tamil poets of different epochs participated in these assemblies, and their compositions are referred to as Sangam literature.  The temple attracts on average 15,000 visitors a day, which grows to around 25,000 on Fridays. , After the Sangam age, most of present-day Tamil Nadu, including Madurai, came under the rule of the Kalabhra dynasty, which was ousted by the Pandyas around 590 CE. J.-C., Mégasthène, l'ambassadeur de Seleukos Nikator auprès du roi Chandragupta Maurya visite Madurai. Athens of the East, Sleepless city, City of Festivals, City of Four Junctions, Historic capital of Tamil Nadu State, Temple City.  There are ten other sub urban railway stations serving the city. The decorated icons of Meenakshi and her consort are taken out in a procession from the Meenakshi Temple to the Mariamman Teppakulam. The temple entry movement was first led in Madurai Meenakshi temple by independence activist A. Vaidyanatha Iyer in 1939. Entertainment included shopping malls such as Milan'em Mall and Vishaal de Mal is being the South Tamil Nadu's biggest large format shopping mall, is located in Chokkikulam, Madurai.Theaters such as INOX Leisure Limited, Big Cinemas,Thangaregal, and more than 10 are playing the vital role in entertainment industry in Madurai.Courtyard by Marriott, Taj Hotels in pasumalai, GRT Regency, The Heritage hotels, Germanus Hotel, Astoria, Kadambavanam resort, Poppy's hotel, Lake view hotel, Madurai Residency are such a popular hotels.National Cricket Ground NPR College Ground is an artificial turf ground with a seating capacity of 5000 and flood lights.The ground has hosted 10 first class cricket matches and it is also a venue for Tamil Nadu Premier League located 42 km (26 mi) away from Madurai.  Thiagarajar College (established in 1949), Madura College (established in 1889), Fatima College (established in 1953), Sourashtra College (established in 1967) and M.S.S. , In 2001, Slum-dwellers comprise 32.6 per cent of the total population, much higher than the national average of 15.05 per cent.  There are two government medical institutes in Madurai, Madurai Medical College and Homoeopathic Medical College, Thirumangalam and 11 paramedical institutes. Parmi les Nâyaka, Tirumalai Nâyaka (1623-1659) est un dirigeant populaire qui orne la ville de bâtiments et de structures remarquables comme le râja gopuram — la tour principale — du temple de Mînâkshî ou le palais des Nâyaka, qui sera restauré en 1870. Healthcare in Madurai is provided by both government-run and private hospitals.Madurai is being a second medical hub of Tamil Nadu provides a good infrastructure a Quality medical care for all over the southern districts of Tamil Nadu. The temple is a significant symbol for Tamils and has been mentioned since antiquity in Tamil literature, though the present structure was built between 1623 and 1655 CE.  The city is divided into a number of concentric quadrangular streets around the temple.  The Temple Entry Authorization and Indemnity Act passed by the government of Madras Presidency under C. Rajagopalachari in 1939 removed restrictions prohibiting Shanars and Dalits from entering Hindu temples. Les terres sont principalement argileuses, et sont principalement utilisées pour la culture du riz, de légumineuses, du mil, de graines oléagineuses, du coton et de la canne à sucre.  Madurai is one of the few rubber growing areas in South India, and there are rubber-based industries in Madurai. Capitale des Pândya… , On 27 January 2018, Prime Minister Narendra Modi laid a foundation stone for the new AIIMS hospital project in Thoppur at a cost of Rs. There are also daily Tamil evening newspapers like Tamil Murasu, Malai Murasu and Malai Malar published in Madurai. En fait, Madurai est plus probablement la déformation du mot tamoul marudhai (மருதை) qui signifie « région agricole fertile avec le sol alluvial ».  Fog and dew are rare, occurring only during the winter season.  Farmers in the district supplement their income with subsidiary occupations like dairy farming, poultry-farming, pottery, brick making, mat-weaving and carpentry. Harvey Mills, circa 1914.  It is the second oldest municipal corporation in Tamil Nadu, after Chennai. Madurai est une des villes les plus anciennes de l'Inde et figure parmi les plus vieux centres urbains continuellement habités au monde. Les terres autour de Madurai sont largement utilisées pour l'agriculture, activité aidée par la présence du barrage de Periyar.  The city is served by the Government Rajaji Hospital.  Megasthenes may have visited Madurai during the 3rd century BCE, with the city referred as "Methora" in his accounts. La ville connaît un climat modéré d'août à octobre, tempéré par de fortes pluies et des orages, et un climat légèrement plus frais de novembre à février.  In addition to the government operated city buses, there are 236 registered private mini-buses that support local transportation. Madurai also has Theme Park, Athisayam which is situated in Paravai, Madurai – Dindugal main road.  Under the British Madurai prospered.  There are numerous textile, granite and chemical industries operating in Madurai.. Sa population dépasse 1,293 million d'habitants (2006) et elle est connue entre autres pour le temple de Mînâkshî, situé au cœur de la ville, qui attire des milliers de touristes et de pèlerins.
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